Agriculture continues to be an important sector fuelling economic growth. Rapidly changing climate is already affecting the production of food and feed, industrial crops, livestock, and seafood. In developing countries like India, agriculture and allied sectors contribute significantly to the gross domestic product. Therefore, evolving strategies to sustain a stable growth of the farming sector is essential for feeding a growing population and poverty alleviation in the face of global climate change. It is crucial to carry out a comprehensive analysis of different aspects of climate change to effectively combat its negative impacts on food production systems and landscapes and reap its potential benefits in agricultural production. Research findings and recommendations on topics as diverse as climate change impacts, genetic enhancement of crops, options for adaptation to climate change, opportunities and challenges for sustainable food production systems have been compiled in this volume. Capacity building for climate resilient agriculture and agriculture policy and planning is equally important to face future challenges. This book makes a compelling effort to address these major issues arising from climate change from an Indian perspective. The important and often conflicting issues in climate change impacts, adaptations and mitigations strategies are brought in to focus and a critical summary of the state-of-art in climate smart agriculture is presented for teachers, researchers and policy makers engaged with climate change and agriculture in the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of Asia and Africa.