This paper is intended to provide an overview of the application of some analytical techniques to ensure seafood safety and authenticity. The first part examines traditional and modern methods for the detection and typing of agents implicated in seafood-borne diseases. Immunological analyses, molecular biology methods and protein-based analyses for detection and typing are discussed. The detection of strains carrying resistance to disinfectants and some antibiotics is specifically addressed. The second part deals with methods to ensure seafood authenticity. One section of this report is dedicated to current legislation related to traceability and labelling in the United States of America and Europe. Protein and DNA analyses seem to be the most suitable methods for species identification; however, new techniques must be developed for full authentication with respect to method of production, geographic origin, etc. Natural isotope distribution, trace element and magnetic resonance analyses seem to be the best candidates in this regard.