Beginning with a discussion on frameworks of writing history, the volume sheds light on the origins and growth of civilizations, empires, and religions. It covers the geographical, ecological, and linguistic backgrounds, and looks at specific cultures of the Neolithic, Chalcolithic, and Vedic periods, as well as the Harappan civilization. The author discussed the rise of Jainism and Buddhism, Magadha, and the beginning of territorial states. The period of Mauryas, Central Asian countries, Satavahanas, Guptas, and Harshvardhana are also analysed. He highlights important phenomena such as the varna system, urbanization, commerce and trade, developments in science and philosophy, and cultural legacy. He also examines the process of transition from ancient to medieval India and addresses topical issues such as the origin of the Aryan culture. This engaging and lucid text, by one of the best-known scholars of ancient India, will be indispensable for students and teachers of ancient Indian history. This book is the Hindi translation of the English edition.