With rampant industrialization, the management of waste generated by various industries is becoming a mammoth problem. Wastewater discharges from industrial and commercial sources may contain pollutants at levels that could affect the quality of receiving waters or interfere with potable water supplies. Thousands of small and large-scale industrial units dump their waste, which is often toxic and hazardous, in open spaces and nearby water sources. Over the last three decades, many cases of serious and permanent damage to the environment and human health on the part of these industries have come to the fore. This book mainly focuses on the biological treatment of wastewater from various industries, and provides detailed information on the sources and characteristics of this wastewater, followed by descriptions of the biological methods used to treat them. Individual chapters address the treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mills; tanneries; distilleries, sugar mills; the dairy industry; wine industry; textile industry; pharmaceutical industry; food processing industry; oil refinery/petroleum industry; fertilizer industry and beverage/ soft drink bottling industry; and include the characteristics of wastewater, evaluation of biological treatment methods, and recycling of wastewater. Easy to follow, with simple explanations and a good framework for understanding the complex nature of biological wastewater treatment processes, the book will be instrumental to quickly understanding various aspects of the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. It will serve as a valuable reference book for scientists, researchers, educators, and engineers alike.